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Research Papers

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Effect of Yoga in Concentration in Chemistry Class

Dr. Kushwaha archana archanakushwaha17@gmail.com

Abstract

Yoga is a therapy to increase the mental presence in the classroom. In present study experiment was done on B.Sc. V semester students of Govt. College, Nagda (MP) 50% students of class did yoga and surya namskar regularly for 60 days. Remaining 50% did not attended yoga. After two months, results were surprising that the students which do yoga got good marks in CCE and class room presentation. But other did not get more marks and also they got bored in class room lectures.The students who do yoga can sit in class for long duration.

Yoga Brings Emotional Stability

Majumdar Gitashree, Dasgupta Surangama &Thakur Sumanta gitashree.majumdar@gmail.com

Abstract

Emotionally unstable (Borderline Personality Disorder), characterized by a definite tendency to act impulsively and without consideration of the consequences of the mood, is unpredictable and capricious. The impulsive type is characterized by lack of impulsive control, in addition with disturbed self image and chronic feelings of emptiness, by intense and unstable interpersonal relationships and by a tendency to self – destructive behavior including suicide gesture and attempts. Individuals with Borderline Personality disorder have marked negative emotions (anxiety, depression, guilt / shame, worry). The individual usually goes from one emotional crisis to another. Self harm and repeated impulsive suicide attempts are seen in the severely ill. Yoga helps to reduce the physical stress on the body. Relaxation Yoga helps to lower the levels of the stress hormone Cortisol. Yoga moreover helps to focus on the present, to become more aware and to help connect between mind and body. It opens the way to improved concentration, coordination, reaction time and memory. Yoga along with guided imagery form helps the individual with deep relaxation and negative emotions get locked in the unconscious mind float to the surface and are dissipated. The aim of the present study is to assess the emotional instability of individuals. 10 emotionally unstable subjects and 5 normal subjects as control were compared. Borderline Personality Disorder Test and personal data sheet were used for data collection. Interviews demonstrated improvement in different symptoms. The significance of the difference between Emotionally Unstable group and the controls on Borderline Personality scale, is calculated using’t’ test. The results show that the individuals have significantly higher scores than normal subjects. The present study indicates the importance of Yoga in the formulation of a treatment plan for Emotionally Unstable and suicide prone individual. These preliminary findings indicate that yoga is a complementary approach for young people with Emotional instability, although larger clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

Effect of Yogic Exercises on Percentage of Body Fat,Total Cholesterol and HDL-C among Obese Women

Dr. Godara Harbans Lal & Guman Pramjeet Singh harbansbansi@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of Yogic Exercises on Percentage of Body Fat, total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) among obese women. For this purpose, 20 female obese women (age17-25) were selected. The subjects received yogic exercise only one session in the morning between 6-7 am for three alternate days a week for six weeks. To analyse the collected data,’t’-ratio was used at 0.05 level of confidence. The results showed that there were significant changes in Percentage of Body Fat, TC and HDL-C. It was concluded that the yogic exercise is widely believed to induce changes in the lipid profiles and Percentage of Body Fat of women.

Relevance of Yoga in Ayurveda

Dr Vyas Mahesh & Dr Archana drmaheshvyas@yahoo.com

Abstract

Ayurveda, the ancient system of medicine is one of the most time tested medical system existing till date. Ayurveda evolved through ages incorporating many principles and concepts from Indian philosophical schools such as sankyayoga ,nyayavaishesika etc. Ayurveda aids in attaining the 4 Purusharthas (pursuits of life) viz. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha.Yogic principles and practises are very much present in the basic principles of Ayurveda. Yoga can be considered as sister concern of Ayurveda and both complement with each other.Ayurveda defines Ayu (life) as the combined stateof Sarira (body), Indriya (senses), Sattva (mind) and Atma (Soul). According to Ayurveda, health is not merely freedom from disease. It is essential that body, mind and soul are in an excellent state so that the individual can perform his functions and fulfill his role in life.Definition of Swastha also emphasize equal importance to the mental states along with physical health.

Samdosa Samagnisca Samdhatumalakriyah Prasannatmendriyamanah Svastha Ityabhidhiyate(Su. su. 15/48). The normalcy and coordinated function of body, senses, mind, and soul along with equilibrium in dosas (humors), dhatu (tissues) and digestive fire (agni) will result in the wellbeing whereas abnormality and in-coordination results in disease. Manas is also considered as an adishtana (base) for the manifestation of disease. The veterans of Ayurveda has included Yoga in the management of various ailments. Acharyavagbhata says that ‘DhiDairyaAatmadiVigyanam Mano DosaAushadamParam’ andCharaka quotes ‘Manaso Gyana Vigyana Dhairya Smriti Samadibihi'; which include Astanga Yoga, imparting courage, knowledge of the self, Mantra, Japa, Pratidwandwadibhava, Sadachara etc. Acharyas were well aware of the fact that any pathology in mind can be managed through various spiritual practices. One of the main cause of disease is pranjaparadha (errors act of intellect and memory) which can be totally eradicated only with the help of yogic practices. Ayurveda advocates to follow certain rules of code and conduct for a healthy living which can be easily put under the yamaniyamas of Astanga yoga.The real treatment of Ayurveda cannot be complete or fruitful without the help of yoga. There are many references to prove the importance and close association of yoga in Ayurveda which will be discussed in detail in the paper.

A Detail Study of Shatchakra with Special Reference to Manipura Chakra and its Related Diseases

Dr. Saini Megha & Dr. Bhoir Uday Bhikanrao dr.meghasaini@gmail.com

Abstract

Agni is the main essential part in the body. The state of Agni manners and its greatest impact is not only on digestion of food but also on general health of individual. Paschimmotanasana, Bhujangasana, Uddiyana Bandha and Dhyan, these yogic kriyas stimulate the Manipura chakra and help to treat Ajeerna so the work is done on the Manipura chakra and its related disease (Ajeerna). Detailed study of Manipura Chakra. To evaluate the hypothesis related with effect of Paschimmotanasana, Bhujangasana, and Uddiyana Bandha and Dhyana on Manipura Chakra & its related disease Ajeerna. Material & Inclusion criteria: Age limit 20 to 40 yrs. Candidates of both sex. Patient of Ajeerna. Exclusion Criteria: Any major illness like- Peptic ulcer, HTN, Diabetes, Cirrhosis of Liver, Ascities. Methods: Clinical Research, Registration of 30 patients with symptoms. This questionnaires having 16 questions for the qualitative assessment of Ajeerna. Severity of Ajeerna on the basis of score with the help of Wilcoxon rank method. Teaching of Paschimmotanasana ,Bhujangasana ,Uddiyana Bandha and Dhyan on the Manipura Chakra. Significant results in the Clinical study concluded that Paschimmotanasana, Bhujangasana, Uddiyana Bandha and Dhyan on the Manipura Chakra are effective.

Detail Study of Shatchakra w.s.r. to Mooladhar Chakra and its Related Diseases

Dr Sharma Mukesh & Dr. Kamble Pushpalata Bharat c.m.71729@gmail.com

Abstract

Research Type: Scientific Clinical research. Background & objectives: Mooladhar Chakra governs excretion of waste products. Now a days, related disease constipation is a major problem due to lack of physical work & stress. Not only constipation make you feel bloated, headachy & irritable but relieving constipation is time consuming and expansive To eradicate these problems, work is done on Mooladhar chakra.

  • Detail study of Mooladhar chakra.
  • Effect of Pranayam,Bandh and Dhyan on disease related to Mooladhar Chakra.
  • Evaluation of hypothesis mentioned in Hathayogapradeepika.

Material Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age limit– 20-40 yrs.
  • Candidates of both sex.
  • Patient of chronic constipation only.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any major illness & Disease like Piles,Fistula,HTN,Diabetes,&Asthama.

Methods: Clinical Research:

  • Registration of 30 patients.
  • Standard Mooladhar Chakra questionnaires (from sutra of Charak Samhita and Rome 2 criteria) were used for assessment of effect of Moolbandh,Ganesh kriya, & Nose tip gazing on Chronic Constipation.
  • Questionnaires consist of 15 qualitative questions for assessment of disease Chronic Constipation.
  • Result is significant which has been checked by WILCOXON SIGN RANK TEST.
  • Teaching of Moolbandh, Ganesh kriya & Nashika Agra Drishti.

CONCLUSION: Significant results in Clinical study concluded that Moolbandh, Ganesh kriya & Nashika Agra Drishti are effective.

Impact of Preksha Meditation on Cardiovascular Health

Dr Shekhawat Pradyumna Singh drpradyumnasingh@gmail.com

Abstract

Impact of Preksha Meditation on Cardiovascular health Dr Pradyumna Singh Shekhawat Preksha Meditation is a technique of meditation for attitudinal change, behavioural modification, health promotion and integrated development of personality. Cardiovascular problem is the vast growing problem and leading cause of death in present scenario. Method – All thirty subjects were selected randomly and divided into two groups – Experimental and control group, each group consists of 15 subjects. The experimental group of subjects practice Preksha Meditation. There after they practiced 35 minutes a day for Three Months. The data was analyzed using student’s paired’t’ test. ‘p’ value of less than 0.05 were accepted as indicating significant difference between the values of experimental and control groups. Results – A significant decline was observed in Heart Rate, Systolic pressure, Diastolic pressure, Mean pressure, Rate pulse pressure, Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein whereas the High Density Lipoprotein increases significantly. On the basis of results obtained it can be concluded that regular practice of PM results in quality of cholesterol decrease the risk of cardiac disorder & load on heart and reduces the sympathetic activities of the body, thereby promoting strength and stamina.

Yoga in the Physical World

Dr. Tiwari R. K. rkt084@gmail.com

Abstract

Yoga is a method of strict self discipline. In the beginning the mind will be wild and uncontrollable. Tune in the mind can be achieved through the yogic process. In the nature there exists a mental affinity, a scientific law, a rhythm of mental relationship. We all know the need of a healthy body in the path of yoga. It is the body which bears and tears all the physical and mental tension. The flow of energy upward with all the branches of nerves and spine controls our whole body and mind. We begin with the body which is a laboratory and ends with the body which is the ultimate reality. The whole universe is inside the body. The god who is free from good and evil is inside the body. Sometimes we feel energetic and full of pleasure. We get extra energy with praying, dancing, helping, listening music, playing with our friends and Child. When we help others, we enjoy the state of bliss and happiness. Through balanced skillful actions in the cosmic world, we can put control on your mind and body. Many times we see the pleasure of feeling of inner self with beautiful inner lights, colours, inner sound and wisdom. We enjoy the growing sense of inner knowingness and find inner tranquility in our life. The meta physics of yoga is the source of everything we access and it can transform our life. We know the matter- energy continuum. The physical world is the grossest of the five layered existence of the whole creation. The layer of bliss is a state where mind has gone to its deepest level of silence with all pervasive expanses. We know the quantum facts that every matter dissolves into quanta. There are the waveform of possibility, which can spread across space and time. The ancient yogis know this well. Self realisation is the goal of life. We are enforced with the choice of taking the path of good or the path of pleasant.

YOGA – A Boon to Rheumatoid Arthritis

Dr Thakur Sumanta, Majumdar Gitashree, Dasgupta Surangama tmmtrc@gmail.com

Abstract

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic systematic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally affects synovial joints. This disease often impacts patient’s quality of life. For young people with rheumatoid arthritis there is a need for rehabilitative approaches that have been shown to be safe and to lead to improved functioning. The pilot study investigated the effect of yoga along with medication and counseling. Treatment methods were evaluated using a mixed method approach that combined quantitative results from standardized questionnaires and qualitative interview with participants. The aim of the present study is to assess the maladjustment of Rheumatoid arthritis patients. 10 Rheumatoid Arthritis patient and 5 normal subjects as control were compared. MC Gill Pain Questionnaire, Beck’s Depression Inventor and personal data sheet were used for data collection. The quantitative results indicated significant improvements in pain, pain disability, depression, mental health, vitality, and self-efficacy. Interviews demonstrated improvement in RA symptoms and functioning but uncertainty about whether the intervention affected pain. The significance of the difference between Rheumatoid Arthritis group and the controls on pain and depression, is calculated using ‘t’ test. The results show that the Rheumatoid Arthritis patients have significantly higher scores than normal subjects. The present study indicates the importance of Yoga in the formulation of a treatment plan for Rheumatoid Arthritis. These preliminary findings indicate that yoga is a feasible complementary approach for young people with RA, although larger clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy.

Stress-Anxiety-Depression Generated Obesity: ROLE OF YOG THERAPY

Dr Singh Babita, Dr Choudhary Anita and Pundit Mishra Radheshyam titovbabita10@gmail.com

Abstract

People suffering from anxiety & depression usually have a sedentary life style that adds to obesity. Conventional medical approach is Diet restriction, Psychotherapy, Anti-anxiety & Anti depressive drugs, Anti-obesity drugs and Surgery. Apparently, instead of focusing just on weight loss program it is important to control the co-morbid factors and to understand the link between the two i.e. Stress- anxiety-depression and obesity.

The aim of study is to prospectively assess the effect of comprehensive yoga based lifestyle modification program on obesity and to evaluate the influence of yoga in relieving symptoms of anxiety and depression Hypothecation is that controlling of stress, anxiety & depression would help in controlling obesity and vice versa.

BMI (body mass index) and WHR (Waist hip ratio) were chosen for the assessment of obesity as they are easy and reliable. Spillberg anxiety scale was used to determine the anxiety score and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) which is a multipurpose instrument for screening, diagnosis, monitoring and measuring severity of depression was used.

People with a BMI> 25- 29.9 & BMI > 30 – 34.9 and those with confirmation of anxiety and depression by Spillberg anxiety and PHQ-9 scale were included. All those who had hereditary obesity accompanied with other medical complications were excluded. The study was approved by the institutional Review Board of R.D.Gardi Medical College, Ujjain and Ujjain Yoga life society (M.P).

On the basis of severity & consent, out of 62 subjects, 32 subjects were selected for study (group-I) and 30 subjects were considered as control (Group-II). Scores were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of study.

Under the supervision of Yoga experts, study group was made to follow prescribed Yoga routine (as per requirement of individual), 6 days a week for 3 months. Yogic Interventions include asanas, pranayama, suryanamaskar, yog nidra and meditation. The control group was allowed to carry on with any work such as reading, writing etc. for 1 hour during the time the yoga group underwent the yoga practices.

After 3 months of yogic intervention there was a significant decrease in BMI, WHR, Anxiety score and stress level amongst study group which was not found in control group. Life style modification brings drastic change in mental and physical health at the same time. It helps in controlling the weight of the individual on one hand and stress and depression on the other hand.

Yoga for Spiritual Awakening – Through Rejuvenation of Spiritual Gods

Mr Bhargava Sudhir sudhirkbhargava@gmail.com

Abstract

Some neurologists do call a human brain as a ‘mini cosmos’. This confirms the relation between vedic literature, the Cosmos and the human brain with energies as common denominator.

Historically, Vedic people had known the importance of regulating the energies in the brain for their mental as well as physical health, and so the hymns in Vedas glorify various sources of energies in cosmos. Rhishis of the period devised brain exercices called Yogic exercises and Sanskrit hymns in scientific manner so as to generate vibrations in brain for proper regulation of energy flows and generation of brain chemicals called hormones.

Considering the importance of energies, even the God to be worshipped in Vedic Sanatan Dharma was devised in energy form, which can give the community the mental, physical and moral strength. The ‘Rudra’ glorified and worshipped in Rigved is described as Shiva, a conglomerate of energies as the supreme God or ‘Param Atma’. The energies comprising Shiva are divided into groups to form Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh. ‘Rudrani’, the Parvati plays the role of ‘Housewife’ with specific duties of different Goddesses , with Ganesh the son as ‘Karta’, the doer in attendance.

Spiritual Gods, mentioned above form the parts of brain and Power point Presentation will explain the relation between meditation, yogic exercises, spiritual awakening and rejuvenation of these Gods so that the efficiency of brain increases in taking appropriate decisions and improves the overall mental health.

Research on Yoga in Education (RYE)

Ms Mishra Reena, Dr Singh J P reena.mishra154@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Yoga is the Sanskrit word for ‘union’, and its aim is a balanced harmony of the physical needs, emotions and desires. Although the intellectual is clearly predominant within our Western education system, the close interdependence of mind and body is focused upon through RYE techniques. The result is the art of balanced living and improved health, because vital energies are better managed. The Patanjali Scale is an essential reference guide in this process, and six of its fundamental elements are utilised by RYE: living together (yama), cleaning the ‘house’ i.e. body and mind (niyama), straightening the spine (asana), breathing (pranayama), relaxation (pratyahara), and concentration (dharana). objectives- (1)- To improve pupil’s learning, memory, attention & self esteem. (2)- To develop the power of concentration in class. (3)- To foster creativity in written work. (4)- To improve the attitude towards work & personality. (5)-To create a good atmosphere in class whole day. Contextual Background to RYE Micheline Flak (PhD) successfully introduced yoga techniques into the French national education system nearly thirty years ago. Flak is now president of RYE, an association created in 1978 that specialises in teaching yoga techniques to educators, giving opportunities for them to explore and experience theory alongside classroom practice to improve pupils’ learning, memory, attention and self-esteem. In France, RYE has become synonymous with advanced teaching techniques, since it corresponds with the latest educational research and practices. Subsequently, RYE has developed into an international phenomenon, with centres in Europe, South America and the USA. Yoga in Education . We were there to learn more about the techniques developed in schools.These techniques of RYE are simple, straight forward and adaptable. They are suitable for use by teachers from pre-school to university and they are great fun. They also work. The French and Italian Education departments have formally acknowledged their effectiveness in schools. The origins of the techniques developed by Micheline Flak are based on philosophy, which has been around for millennia namely Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras. Yoga aims to make all aspects of the self harmoniously united: mind, body and emotions – these three need to interact cooperatively but cannot do so, unless this union is achieved. Until this happens there is a continuous waste of energy. Lack of concentration is one of the many teaching problems today, and both children and adults suffer from this inability to fix the mind on one subject. Concentration may be defined as immobility of thought. The five senses, through which we are in contact with the outside world, assist the power of concentration. Yoga techniques help to develop the power of concentration, like a muscle, by exercising it. If sufficient concentration can be developed the brain can pass from the emission of beta waves, associated with the everyday wakeful state and conscious attention, to the emission of alpha waves, associated with passive awareness, a relaxed state of mind and greater receptivity to the learning process. This is when optimum learning can take place. Visualisations can be very useful for the presentation or revision of certain topics. They also foster creativity (in a written work, for example) and memory. A mental trip to a vegetable garden exploring the senses of different fruits and vegetables will motivate them to write and to learn the vocabulary of this topic. It is during pauses between phases of deep attention, that the brain fixes knowledge just acquired .It has been scientifically proved that it is important to have pauses in learning sessions. When we stop talking to our students and presenting them with information, the brain continues to analyse the content of the given material. It is necessary to teach young people that to intersperse periods of work with periods of rest is the most efficient way to process information. Short relaxation, presented in different ways during a learning session, helps the brain to digest information. The RYE (Research on Yoga in Education) approach is not to insert a yoga class into the timetable but to intersperse short and simple techniques throughout the school day, which will improve the attitude towards work. Using yoga in the classroom will definitely affect how one teaches and what is learnt. “Quality in education” should include the capacity of coping with change. Yoga enhances the ability to deal with change, creating new possibilities in the classroom. As of July 2005 we have a branch of RYE in the U.K. The first RYE teacher training in the UK starts in January 2006, and runs over two years. It is aimed at schoolteachers, yoga teachers and anyone working with children. The first year focuses on general techniques of yoga in school, and consists of four weekends. In the second year the emphasis shifts to techniques of relaxation. By the end of the second year, students must complete a written report and a residential week at the International RYE seminar. The training will be primarily run by Micheline Flak in London, with guest tutors. Yoga for the Classroom: The method of Research on Yoga in Education (RYE), an international non-profit making organisation which blends the standard school curriculum with exercises on concentration, attention and relaxation, drawn mainly from traditional yoga. Unlike the more usual yoga clubs, in the RYE system children practice specially adapted yoga techniques within their own classroom, as an integral part of each lesson. The exercises are woven into the learning process itself, helping children to stay alert, relaxed and receptive throughout the day, and significantly reduce stress level of both teachers and pupils. Conclusion- RYE is dedicated to adjusting and adapting the techniques of the yoga tradition in order to improve the mutual well-being of child and teacher, and to foster learning and creativity. Although rooted in the ancient Indian legacy of yoga—the final goal of which is release from suffering and the attainment of a supreme state of well-being—Micheline Flak and the teachers she trains have re-molded the methods of this wisdom tradition to fit the needs of today’s classroom. The exercises that they teach can help to significantly improve attention and memory in children, and to nurture confidence and creativity.

Effect of Meditation on Emotional Maturity

Dr. Jain Shashiprabha, Dr. Sisodiya Asha shashijn7@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present era people are facing difficulties in life. These difficulties are giving rise to many problems such as anxiety, tensions, frustration and emotional upsets in day to day life. So the study of emotional life is now emerging as a descriptive science.Emotional maturity is an effective determinate of personality pattern. A person who is able to keep his emotions under control has good adjustment and also able to enjoy the use of his powers and talents.

Meditation has been practiced since antiquity as a component of numerous religious fractions and beliefs meditation may involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that state such as anger, hatred etc.Meditation has been linked is a variety of health benefits and mental as well as physical well being. Mindfulness meditation has now entered the health care domain because of evidence suggesting a positive correlation between the practice and emotional and physical health.The aim of the study is to find out the effect of practicing meditation on level of emotional maturity and spiritual awareness among adult women.

It is assumed that there shell be significant difference between level of emotional maturity of adult women before and after practicing meditation.

There were 30 women 30-35 years aged was selected by purposive random sampling method by taking consent for the study. The selection criteria include age, sex, occupation, only house wives having moderate education i.e. high school to graduation, from middle socio-economic group residing in Agar-Malwa only.The study conducted before practicing meditation and after three months of practicing meditation by the respondents. Emotional maturity scale by Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr.Mahesh bhargawa (2010) were used for the assessment of emotional maturity, Data collected and analyzed, by’t’ test.

Study revealed that there is significant difference between level of emotional maturity before and after practicing meditation. It is emerged that women found reduction in negative feelings and thoughts and increased spiritual awareness.

Kathak Yoga as Expressive Therapy helps in Coping with Everyday Life Stress

Dr Dasgupta Surangama, Majumdar Gitashree, Thakur Sumanta, Dasgupta Lokeshwari surangamad@gmail.com

Abstract

Kathak is one of the oldest Classical Dance forms of India. It originated in Northern India and has evolved itself with the passage of time. Kathak is markedly different from the other Classical Dance forms of India. Kathak is performed in an upright position, and Kasak-Masak (ways and intervals of breathing) while performing is an integral part of Kathak. The rhythmic portions, the pirouettes and the other body movements used in Kathak have some similarity or commonness with Yoga. The word Yoga has originated from the Sanskrit word “Yuj”, the meaning of which is to unite. So here the basic concept is to unite the body and mind. In Yoga the use of triangular posture of body is very important and this has a great similarity with Kathak dance. The basic mudra (hand gesture) of Kathak and yoga, the “Hansapaksha” (the fingers are joined together and the thumb finger touches the mid palm), this is the gesture of meditation. In the fast pacing world people are always under stress to fulfill their everyday needs, to achieve the goal of life and to keep a balance between family life and professional life. It seems that everyone from early morning till late night is running behind a world, where one has to prove his/her efficiency to the fullest. This leads to a stressful existence and many chronic physical complaints are reported, like migraine, indigestion, blood pressure, heart disease etc. From the viewpoint of clinical psychology, these are termed as psychosomatic disorder or somatisation. This disorder involves both mind and body and caused due to stress and anxiety mostly. In order to substantiate the thesis outlined above, experiments was conducted on 20 professionals from various fields. Ten belonged to the Control Group and the other ten to the Experimental Group. STAI and Perceived Stress Scale and information sheet was used to collect data. The significance of the difference between professionals who were applied Psychotherapy and Kathak Yoga as Expressive Therapy and only psychotherapy was calculated using ‘t’ test. The results show that the professionals who were applied both the therapies have significantly higher scores than normal subjects.

Yoga for Physical Health in Education

Ms Verma Kirtibala, Dr Awasthi R.N. kirtibalaverma@gmail.com

Abstract

Yoga is mind-body technique which involves relaxation, meditation and a set of physical exercises performed with breathing. Being holistic, it is the best means for achieving physical, mental, social and spiritual well being of the practitioners. This can be achieved by systematic and disciplined practice of ashtang (eight-limbed) yoga described by sage Patanjali. it has limited role in stress-based, chronic degenerative, old age and lifestyle related disorders which are the bane of modern society. Yoga hasbeen found to be very effective in these conditions. objectives- (1)-To set a harmony with human body, mind and soul. (2)-To develop personality (3)-To make systmetic and disciplined life. (4)-To decrease heart rate and blood pressure. (5)-To make a healthy thinking in students. Stretching into a Fit Life Yoga becomes part of our physical life. yoga helps maintain a balanced metabolism, it also helps to regulate weight. Additionally, yoga stretches muscles lengthwise, causing fat to be eliminated around the cells, thus reducing cellulite.” I do yoga poses throughout the day. After hours at my computer, I stretch my stiff shoulders and arms. When I need a boost of energy, I do energizing poses. When I am feeling exhausted at the end of the day, I do restorative poses. Yoga becomes part of our mental life. Yoga teaches us to focus on breathing while you hold the poses. This attention to breath is calming; it dissolves stress and anxiety. I use yogic breathing on the tennis courts, in the dentist’s chair, when I’m stuck in traffic. You should always leave a yoga practice feeling energized, not tired. If you feel tired after yoga, it means you spent the time “fighting” yourself, trying to force yourself into poses. In yoga, you “surrender” to the pose by letting go of the tension. Yoga becomes part of your spiritual life. Yoga is practiced by people from all religions; it is nondenominational. Yoga teaches “right” living in how we deal with ourselves and others. As I work on a difficult pose, I learn patience, forgiveness, and the value of gentleness. Yoga advocates proper eating, but you don’t have to be a vegetarian to practice yoga. There have been some medical studies on the positive effects of yoga. And a growing number of doctors are following the lead of cardiologist Dr. Dean Ornish and incorporating yoga into their patient recovery programs. But for the most part, the evidence of the benefits of yoga is anecdotal. They range from the simple “I can touch my toes again” to “it helped me handle my disease.” A woman who was diagnosed with hepatitis C, for example, said: “Yoga has helped me immensely to deal with the hepatitis C treatment. I truly feel that the reason that I have had such a successful treatment so far is that my whole being was ready, calm, and accepting of what would be-and throughout the treatment the ability to focus, breathe, and stretch the limits of my body and mind has definitely kept me together.” Conclusion- Anyone can do yoga-no matter how young or old you are, whether you’re a couch potato or a professional athlete. Size and fitness level do not matter because there are modifications for every yoga pose. The idea is to explore your limits, not strive for some pretzel-like perfection. Start by going to a yoga class. Look for a teacher who challenges you but does not push, who offers modifications, and who works one-on-one with students. Wear comfortable clothing that allows you to move. Use a yoga mat for cushioning and to keep from slipping. If there is no yoga studio in your town, practice with a video and read book. Just remember one thing: “No pain, no gain” is NOT the yoga way. If it hurts, stop. Patience and feeling good about yourself and your world is the way of the yogi.

Effect of Yoga (Asana, Pranayama, Meditation) on Blood Glucose Levels and Glycosylated Hemoglobin: A Randomized Control Trial

Dr Sharma Meenakshi, Dr Sharma Asha, Dr Sharma Ram Babu, Dr Chauhan Nirupama drmeenakshi72@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a multi-organ disease. Found in all parts of world & refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. The incidence of Type 2 DM is also increasing with the increase in age, physical inactivity and sedentary life style. In India presently more than 30million people are diabetic .Life style modification, regular physical activity, and weight reduction are indicated for prevention and management of DM .Yoga is a way of life which includes changes in mental attitude, diet and stress.

Aims and objectives

To assess and compare the effect of yoga on fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose and HbA1C level (glycosylated haemoglobin) before and after intervention (Yoga) in study group and between study and control group.

Material and method

The study was conducted in the department of Physiology in collaboration with the department of medicine of S.M.S. Hospital of S.M.S. Medical college, Jaipur.

After taking written consent, uncomplicated Diabetes mellitus type 2 patients were selected in the age group of 35-55 years with diabetic duration 1-10 years. The subjects were prescribed medicine(Oral Hypoglycaemic Drug) and diet control. They were divided into study group (40) (who underwent yoga practice for three continuous months 40-45 minutes per day 5 days in a week) and control (40) (who did not undergo yoga practice).

Blood sample were estimated for fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c before the starting and
end of every month for study and control group.

Result & conclusion

After 12 weeks of yoga intervention, there was statistically significant decrease in fasting blood glucose in study group [145.687 ± 23.44 to 95.14 ± 19.49] and postprandial glucose also decreased [185.97 ± 30.62 to 136 ± 21.45]. The Glycosylated haemoglobin decreased also decreased significantly from [9.07 ± 1.72 to 7.09 ± 0.89]. There were no significant changes in control group. These findings suggest that yoga have a beneficial effect on glycaemic control in mild to moderate Type 2 diabetes and decrease the dosage of oral hypoglycaemic drugs.

From Five Koshas to Fifth Dimension of Life

Dr. Tomar Vikrant Singh vikrantsingh.miit@gmail.com

Abstract

Health is the combination of Physical, Mental, Social, Emotional & Spiritual (PMSES) well being. This integrated approach towards life is called Yoga, oneness with composite whole. The roots of this integrated approach comes from the ancient Yogic concept of 5 bodies: Physical – Annamaya Kosha Energy – Pranamaya Kosha, Mental – Manamaya Kosha, Wisdom – Vijnanmaya Kosha, Bliss – Anandamaya Kosha. SELF – Atman Kosha stands for Cover, as pearl shell covering the pearl. Science introduced time as the fourth dimension & spirituality introduces Permanent Bliss as the fifth & last dimension of the world. The goal of every goal of life is Peace & Happiness. The internal journey crosses different koshas to reach the permanent bliss through Yoga practices. The papers attempts to elaborate the impact of evolution of these 5 Koshas for spiritual awakening and will touch issues related to science of emotions & its impact on social, mental & spiritual growth. As biology is the science of body, botany is the science of plants similarly spiritualism is the science of life.

A Rare Case of Bilateral Multiple Complex Variations in Formation and Branching Pattern of Brachial Plexus

Dr. Parikh Sneha Gopaldas, Dr. Bondre K.V. snehaparikh44@gmail.com

Abstract

The Brachial plexus is a somatic nerve plexus formed by intercommunications among the ventral rami of the lower 4 cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1) which supply the upper limb. Variations in formation of roots, trunks, divisions and cords are common but Bilateral variations in the formation and branching of brachial plexus are extremely rare. This case was reported during routine dissection of a 75-year-old embalmed female cadaver conducted for undergraduate medical students. Multiple Complex bilateral variations in brachial plexus right from roots to branching pattern were observed. On right side there were absence of divisions of upper and lower trunk and all three cords were absent and all branches were directly originating from roots, trunks and their divisions. On left side there was absence of division of lower trunk and all branches were directly originating from roots, trunks and their divisions except Musculocutaneous nerve which was absent. It is extremely uncommon to find so many variations in one body and bilateral variations are still too much rare. The observed variations are of anatomical and clinical interest. Understanding of such variations is clinically very much important for diagnosing unexplained clinical signs and symptoms as well as during nerve blocks and certain surgical procedures around the neck and proximal arm.

The Effect of Selected Exercise on Anthropometric Measurrement of Women of Gandhinagar City

Dr Patel Mukesh mgpatel1972@gmail.com

Abstract

An Research and Study of human as specially in case of women body composition has been introduced late in the 20th century. The main objective was to see and study the effect of physical exercise in women’s Anthropometric measurement. I have also put forth my efforts to study the effect in this respect, Forty women were selected from Gandhinagar city. (aged between 30-40 years) and their samples were taken by purposive sampling method and divided into two main groups like Experimental and Control group of women. In this course of study of Anthropometric measurement variables like butt, belly,and thigh Twelve Week Training Programme was conducted and after training, measurement shows the difference between Control Group and Experimental Group . It was found that Experimental group was significant on butt, belly, and thigh.

Assessment of Awareness Regarding Spiritual Health among MBBS Students of R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain (M.P.)

Purohit Vibha Arjaria & Abhinav Sinha vibhapurohit83@yahoo.com

Abstract

“The spiritual dimension cannot be ignored, for it is what makes us human.”- Viktor F. Frankl

Introduction:

spiritual health is a new evolving concept came into media and publisher’s eyes in 1990’s, though the existence of spirituality is there with the existence of universe or beyond that…
The word spiritual came from the Latin roots “spiritualis” meaning “of breathing” or “spiritus” meaning “to breathe”. In different eras and different countries so many thinker have tried to explain the essence of spiritual health in their own manner, like Indian (Advaitavaad), Buddhist (Mahayaan) , Chinese(Zen philosophy) and so on..

But the term spiritual is frequently used in context of religion in Hebrait Old Testament and Greek New Testament (pneuma) and conventionally they are used in exchange of each other(1).
But spirituality is a long journey toward experiencing the meaning of life/ultimate goal in a complete way while the religion is a tool / step to achieve the ultimate goal, thus religion and spirituality though interrelated but are different entities.When we hear the word spiritual health, it sounds attractive but difficult to understand and even difficult to define. About a quarter of a century ago, the WHO entertained a discussion on whether the ‘spiritual’ dimension should be included in the definition of health in addition to physical, mental, and social well-being. A few years later, the spiritual dimension was included in a major journal dedicated to health promotion (2) and at about the same time, Agenda 21 recognized the right of individuals to ‘healthy physical, mental, and spiritual development'(3)and about decade ago, governments of all European nations signed the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development committing themselves to addressing the ‘spiritual’ needs of their populations: individuals, families, and communities, and to orienting their policies towards a ‘political, economic, ethical, and spiritual vision for social development'(4). More recently, the spiritual dimension of health was highlighted in the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion (5). There is also the practical difficulty of identifying, defining and measuring dimensions of ‘spiritual’ health. It is perhaps easier to take the path of least resistance and focus on what we can readily measure, irrespective of its relative importance. Spirituality is a positive basic human value, an ontological, existential dimension of man which is supported by the longing for fulfilment in life and the search for meaning and purpose in and beyond life. Spirituality manifests in an individual, dynamic and evolutionaryprocess which transforms the personality in all phases and domains of life, and manifests in different ways of life. For better understanding spiritual health consists of (but not limited to).
-Inner experience of both a transcendent and immanent reality to higher states of consciousness
-Connecting with self, others, and a larger reality
-Experience of greater meaning and purpose in life
-Enlarged self-awareness
-Contemplation of a larger reality (6)

Objectives:

1) To develop a focused questionnaire specifically on spiritual health dimension awareness..
2) To assess the baseline knowledge about spiritual health.
3) To assess the awareness regarding importance of spiritual health and spirituality in individual’s life.
4) To assess the magnitude of confusion between being religious and spiritual.

Material and methods

The study will be conducted with the help of semi structured self administered questionnaire after taking an informed consent from the participants.
The study population will be Undergraduate medical students at RDGMC Ujjain.
Study design is cross-sectional.

Sample size calculation-

As prevalence of spiritually healthy people or percentage of person knowing about spiritual health is not known, i will consider “p” as 50% assuming it will represent for whole population,
According to formula-sample size= 4pq/l2
Assuming error to be 10%
Calculated sample size will be 400(after solving equation)
As my study population is finite population maximum 400 UG’s will be in RDGMC in all 4 years.. (UG students of RDGMC Ujjain)
Using formula –

ss =
Z 2 * (p) * (1-p)
____________________
c 2

Z = 1.96 (for 95% confidence level)
p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal
(.5 used for sample size needed)
c = 0.1(confidence interval, expressed as decimal
for 10%)
Correction for Finite Population

new ss =
Ss
__________________
1+
ss-1
___________
Pop

Pop = population under study (400)
With which the sample size calculated =78

Inclusion criteria-

Those UG students who will give consent…

Exclusion criteria-

Ethical concerns-

1. Participants may misunderstand the questionnaire as a study for some specific religion. Explanation-We will give a brief introduction before administering questionnaire.
2. After filling the questionnaire participants may ask for their own queries regarding spiritual health…. Explanation-there is a plan for spiritual awareness programmes to be conducted in phased manner by dept in upcoming future..
3. Participants may feel increased thought bouts after filling questionnaire… Explanation-there will be an invitation for those who have confusions & queries about spiritual health at dept in fixed hours.

Results-

With the a mean age 21.66 years & almost 50% males & 50% females study revealed following results…
1. A précised questionnaire on spiritual health awareness and a framework of domains to quantify awareness has been developed…
2. 37% participants registered wrong conception that religiousness & spirituality are both synonyms
3. 36% participants were having no idea about “nonduality”(adwaitvaad)
4. 58% participants gave positive response toward spiritual health need.
5. 82% participants gave positive response toward importance of spirituality..
6. Individuals felt difficulty in filling questionnaire in terms of language used in spiritual literature.
Rest of the results in terms of questions & scores in the developed questionnaire will be shown at the time of presentation.

References

1) Zinnbauer et al;1997
2) Michael P. O’Donnell (2009) Definition of Health Promotion 2.0: Embracing Passion, Enhancing Motivation, Recognizing Dynamic Balance, and Creating Opportunities. American Journal of Health Promotion: September/October 2009, Vol. 24, No. 1
3) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development. Protecting and Promoting Human Health, Agenda 21, Chapter 6.23.
4) UN World Summit for Social Development. Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development.
5) Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World,2005 20th IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion11-15 July 2010, Geneva, Switzerland)

POSTERS

Yogshastra me Dharm Megh Samadhi- Ek Vishesh Chintan (Hindi)

Mr. Panigrahi Debashish (debashis579@gmail.com)

योगशास्त्र में धर्ममेघसमाधि : एक विशेष चिंतन

देवाशिष पाणिग्राही (debashis579@gmail.com)

हमारे जीवन का परमलक्ष्य मोक्षप्राप्ति के लिये हमारे मन ओर शरीरमें स्थित जीतने भी दोष क्लेश हैं उन सबको नाश करना होगा । इसका उपाय अन्य किसी शास्त्र के तुलना में योगशास्त्र में सही ओर प्रामाणिकदीया है । यहां कहते हैं कि जो दानदक्षिणादि पुण्यकर्म करते, ईश्वर को सर्वदा ध्यान करते ज्ञानसाधना करके भी विरक्त हैं उन्हें प्रचुरधर्म की वर्षा होती है उसे धर्ममेघसमाधि कहते हैं । योगाभ्यासी योगी का विवेकज्ञान का निरन्तर प्रवाह उसके वहत प्रयासों के बाद ही होती है ।धर्ममेधसमाधि के द्वारा हमारा किया गया कर्मो का फल भी नाश होता है । कर्मनाश के सन्दर्भ में एक शंका हो जाती है कि गुण ओर कर्म का नाश तो पहले भी प्रसंख्यानसमाधि के द्वारा नाश होता है तो ये मान लिया जाये कि प्रसंख्यानसमाधि ओर धर्ममेधसमाधि एक है या अलग ! यहां पर कहा गया है कि क्रियायोग में क्लेश क्षीण होते हैं तथा प्रसंख्यानसमाधि में उसका दहन होता है । क्लेशों तथा कर्मो का सम्पुर्ण नाश को धर्ममेघसमाधि कहते हैं ।तथापि चित्त में यदि लेशमात्र भी रजोगुण या तसोगुण का प्रभाव रहता है तो वह पुरुष-प्रकृति का भेद ज्ञान को जागृत करता है।जो योगी प्रसंख्यानज्ञानसे भी विरक्त है उसको निरन्तर विवेक-ख्याति के उदय होनेसे उनका घर्ममेघसमाधि होता है । यह एक सविकल्प तथा निर्विकल्पसमाधि का मध्य स्थिति है ।

Power of Yoga

Dr. Singh Anjali (anjalihindi61@gmail.com)

A science which gives us all pleasures without expending a coin is called yoga. This alone can make us able to enjoy all happiness without going to practice and work hard for hundreds of years. Yoga can modify our actions, thoughts, behaviour, psychic control and strength. A man should uplift himself by his higher self and can enjoy the healthy body, mind, wisdom and all perfections. Yoga is a process through which we can protect our self from mental complexes, tensions, mental imbalance, emotional disturbances and behavioural defects. It is yoga that makes our mind body, behaviour character and instincts more positive through redirection and sublimation process. Yoga controls our negative emotions and improves the power of concentration. The power of yoga can transform the life of a man evil to divine, very much similar to parasmani which can convert iron to gold. Yoga tells us that more we growl in love and virtue and holiness, the more we see the same outside.

Yoga – A Boon to Achieve Absolute Welfare

Dr Archana (DRARUBHAT@GMAIL.COM), Dr Kumar Praveen, Dr Vyas Mahesh

Yoga is the Vedic science of self realization that depends upon a well functioning body and mind. This system looks at entire aspect of human being, not only the physical aspect, but even psychological and spiritual phases. Yoga darshana, preaches the discipline of life, the impact of health for the attainment of the ultimatum. We find health oriented philosophical aspects in Yoga school of thought. Patanjali described Yoga as – “Yogastu Chitta vrutti nirodhaha” – methodical effort to attain perfection, through the control of physical and psychic elements. Until and unless, person cannot overcome from the afflictions of Chitta (mind) and not get control over his Buddhi (intellect), he cannot get the Tatvajnana (knowledge of supremacy). To attain this first he should be healthy in all aspects. This is the reason why Yoga Darshana advocates Ashtanga yoga and various Yogic practices which when practiced in their full pledge helps in the complete well beingness.

Yoga as Medicine

Dr. Sachan Shailja (sachanshailja@gmail.com)

In the present situation life without medicine is not possible. Any drug/medicine is equally transmitted all over in the body. It gives us relief but it also exerts many side effects on the other part of body. Medicine affects our body and health. The effects may be psychological, physiological. In psychological changes, it improves concentration, attention, memory, learning efficiency, neuron concentration and self confidence. The yoga practice helps in decreasing depression, hostility. In physiological changes, we found muscular flexibility and strength, increased immunity, respiratory efficiency and improved energy level. Yogic processes can be used for the treatment of asthma, vision, hypertension, insomnia, arthritis and pain. It also balances the hormonal system of body and release stress. If we don’t practicing yoga and are under stress continually, our body chemistry becomes more acidic and it also goes into a state of breakdown. It releases chemicals that are catabolic and the blood is full of all kinds of impurities that include a lot of toxins. The polluted blood is transported all over the entire body including the brain giving the person hazy feeling and tired. Yoga poses are designed to exercise the endocrine system of the body therefore releasing all the good chemical compounds (drugs) that aid and abet a better sense of well being. Yoga is only the way, through which we can make our mind and body healthy. In ancient Indian philosophy a life without yoga will not be blissful. Through continuing dedication in practicing yoga, we can achieve our destination towards Jnana yoga, Raja yoga, Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga. It leads to greater happiness and sense of fulfillment.

Effects of Yoga on Human Body

Ms Bhadauriya Nilima (reena.mishra154@gmail.com)

The term “yoga” and the English word “yoke” are derived from Samskrit root “yuj” which means union. Yoga is a psycho-somatic-spiritual discipline for achieving union & harmony between our mind, body and soul and the ultimate union of our individual consciousness with the Universal consciousness (Madanmohan, 2008). Yoga is mind-body technique which involves relaxation, meditation and a set of physical exercises performed with breathing. Being holistic, it is the best means for achieving physical, mental, social and spiritual well being of the practitioners. This can be achieved by systematic and disciplined practice of ashtang (eight-limbed) yoga described by sage Patanjali. it has limited role in stress-based, chronic degenerative, old age and lifestyle related disorders which are the bane of modern society. Yoga hasbeen found to be very effective in these conditions. Our public health delivery system is under-staffed, fund-starved and reeling under severe economic burden. Knowledge of inexpensive, effective and easily administrable yogic techniques by health professionals will go a long way in helping us achieve the WHO goal of providing”physical, mental, spiritual and social health” to the society.

Spectrum of Yog for Positive Health

Khandelwal Sumit Kumar (guptacp@sify.com), Dr. C.P. Gupta

Poor Health of the Person, Family, Society, Nation & Globe affecting all the dimensions of Health along with poor moral character and Human values is a grave problem today. Yog by joining together various specialties (scientific knowledge)of medical science- Allopathy,Surgery,Ayurveda,Homeopathy,Naturopathy,Asanas & Pranayam (Breathing exercises) , Physiotherapy, Physical Exercises, Meditation and other routines of life like Prayer & recreation is the only remedy to stop, control & eradicate the Health problems and dis-eases and to uplift the Soul(Jeevatma)to unite(union) with the Devine(root)-the Supreme Power Parmatma.

Paryavaran – Bahya aur Antriya (Hindi)

Nagpal Surjeet S ()

Effects of Yoga on the Human Body

SHAH VIKRANT (Vikrantshah.sun@gmail.com)

Yoga teaches us to cure what need not be endured and endure what cannot be cured. As we start to walk out on the way, the way appears. As a single footstep will not make a path on the earth, so a single thought will not make a pathway in the mind. To make a deep physical path, we walk again and again. To make a deep mental path, we must think over and over the kind of thoughts we wish to systematize our lives. For thousands of years, many have doubt at the story of the mysterious force called the yoga , yet the method to attain this power has been hidden, misunderstood, or sometimes, intentionally interrupt. But, like a refreshing spring breeze, Patanjali yoga sutra wipes away the dust and expose the sacred mysteries of our most ancient and holy science. With a firm foundation in scripture and practical knowledge, the method to awaken and develop the root energy of life is made clear and accessible to all. It is no longer necessary to theorize or debate: through the practice of the techniques in these patanjali yoga sutras, one can know. The key to successful yoga therapy is an incremental approach, which tends to be safer and more effective than more aggressive strategies. It is best to begin yoga [therapy] as medicine slowly and ramp up the intensity and duration of practice only as circumstances allow. Twenty minutes of yoga is better for boosting brain activity than vigorous exercise for the same amount of time, a study has found. The researches have shown that participants showed more improvement in their reaction times and accuracy on cognitive tasks after yoga practice than after any other exercise session, which showed no significant improvements on the working memory and inhibitory control scores. Researchers found that following yoga practice the participants were better able to focus their mental resources, process information quickly and more accurately and also learn, hold and update pieces of information more effectively than after performing any other exercise bout. The purpose of Yoga is basically ‘to produce intelligent, compassionate, good hearted, powerful disciples who will become great divine servants… and to accelerate the evolutionary development of the soul so that the person can be of greater service to mankind and the planet Earth’.

Pranayam se Kam Karen Chinta va Tanav

Dr. Gupta Ranju (ranjugupta79@gmail.com), Dr. Gaur Purnima

Om Chanting affects Concentration and Fatigue Level

Bhatnagar Poonam (shrivastavasanchita@gmail.com), Dr. Yadav Sarita

Life style of employees became very hectic. Due to continuous work, work pressure and lack of sleep disease like hypertension is spreading in youngsters in India. To reduce pressure Om chanting helps. It seems that vibration increases efficiency of cells and organs. Therefore person feel relax. Concentration and level of fatigue also affected. Concentration is measured with the help of psychology based test. Om chanting increases concentration and power to work.

Benefits of Yoga in Stress Relief

Shrivastava Sanchita (shrivastavasanchita@gmail.com), Sharma Shivshankar

Stress is essential for learning and creativity but over stress of jobs greatly influence our body. It may cause diseases like hypertension, depression etc. Such type of diseases first affect our digestive system. Indigestion, constipation, gastric problems further affects other part of the body. Therefore various relaxation techniques, meditation and yognidra were applied on different persons. 95% persons got relief from yoga.